Cases: 1M April 2, 2M April 15, 3M April 27, 4M May 8, 5M May 20, 6M May 30, 7M June 7, 8M June 15, 9M June 22, 10M June 29th, 11M July 4, 12M July 8, 13M July 13, 14M July 17, 15M July 23, 16M July 25, 17M July 29, 18M August 1, 19M August 6, 20M August 10, 21M August 16, 22M August 19, 23M August 21, 24M August 27, 25M August 30, 26M September 3, 27M September 7, 28M September 10, 29M September 14, 30M September 18, 31M September 21, 32M September 23, 33M September 28, 34M October 1, 35M October 4, 36M October 8, 37M October 11, 38M October 14, 39M October 17, 40M October 19, 41M October 22, 42M October 24, 43M October 26, 44M October 28, 45M October 30, 46M November 2, 47M November 4, 48M November 6, 49M November 7, 50M November 8, 51M November 10, 52M November 12, 53M November 14, 54M November 15, 55M November 17, 56M November 19, 57M November 20, 58M November 22, 59M November 24, 60M November 25, 61M November 27, 62M November 29, 63M December 1
Ground Zero: Wuhan – in live animal market or cafeteria for animal pathogens: 10th January; Total cases are based on RT PCR, 67% sensitivity
Coronavirus Cases: 64,177,313
ACTIVE CASES 18,262,614
Currently Infected Patients 18,156,587 (99.4%) in Mild Condition
106,027 (0.6%) Serious or Critical
CLOSED CASES 45,914,699
Cases which had an outcome: 44,428,956 (97%) Recovered / Discharged
1,485,743 (3%) Deaths
1st December: New cases 36456, New Deaths 500, Total Cases 9499710, Total Deaths 138159, Active Cases 429753
30th November: New Cases 31179, New Deaths 482, Total cases 9463254, Total Deaths 137659, Active Cases 437000
29th November: New Cases 39036, New Deaths 444, Total Cases 9432075, Total Deaths 137177, Active Cases 448585
28th November: New Cases 41815, New Deaths 495, Total Cases 9393039, Total Deaths 136733, Active Cases 454837
27th November: New cases 4135 3, New Deaths 486, Total Cases 9351224, Total Deaths 136238, Active Cases 456100
26th November: New Cases 43174, New Deaths 491, Total cases 9309871, Total Deaths 135752, Active Cases 456410
25th November: New Cases 44699, New Deaths 518, Total Cases 9266697, Total Deaths 135261, Active Cases 453450
24th November: New cases 44276, New Deaths 489, Total Cases 9221998, Total Deaths 134743, Active Cases 445851
23rd November: New cases 37410, New Deaths 481, Total cases 9177722, Total Deaths 134254, Active Cases 439893
22nd November: New cases 44404, New Deaths 510, Total Cases 9140312, Total Deaths 133773, Active Cases 445095
21st November: New Cases 45295, New Deaths 499, Total Deaths 9095908, Total Deaths 133263, Active Cases 442606
20th November: New Cases 46288, New Deaths 562, Total Cases 9050613, Total Deaths 132764, Active Cases 441952
19th November: New Cases 46182, New Deaths 584, Total Cases 9004325, Total Deaths 132202, Active Cases 445107
18th November: New Cases 45439, New Deaths 587, Total Cases 8958143, Total Deaths 131618, Active Cases 444755
17th November: New Cases 38532, New deaths 472, Total Cases 8912704, Total Deaths 131031, Active Cases 44866016th November: New Cases 28555, New Deaths 450, Total Cases 8874172, Total Deaths 130559, Active Cases 455444,
15th November: New cases 30715, New Deaths 435, Total Cases 8845617 (8.8. Million), Total Deaths 130109, Active Cases 467558
14th November: New Cases 41659, New Deaths 449, Total Cases 8814902, Total Deaths 129674, Active Cases 481491
13th November: New cases 45343, New Deaths 539, Total Cases 8773243, Total Deaths 129225, Active Cases 482551
12th November: New Cases 43861, New Deaths 521, Total Cases 8727900, Total Deaths 128686
11th November: New Cases 48285, New Deaths 549, Total Cases 10703056, Total Deaths 128164
10th November: New Cases 44679, New Deaths 511, Total Cases 8635754, Total Deaths 127615
9th November: New cases 37211, New Deaths 451, Total Cases 8591075, Total Deaths 127104, Active Cases 506765
8th November: New Cases 46661, New Deaths 491, Total Cases 8553864, Total Deaths 126653, Active Cases 511551
7th November: New Cases 46318, New deaths 557, Total cases 8507203, Total Deaths 126162, Active Cases 513750
6th November: New Cases 49851, New Deaths 576, Total Cases 8460885, Total Deaths 125605
5th November: New Cases 47622, New Deaths 675, Total Cases 8411034, Total Deaths 125029, Active Cases 3335730
4th November: New Cases 50465, New Deaths 704, Total Cases 8363412, Total Deaths 124354, Active Cases 528428
3rd November: New Cases 46033, New Deaths 511, Total Cases 8312947, Total Deaths 123650, Active Cases 534540
2nd November: New Cases 37592, New Deaths 497, Total Cases 8266914, Total Deaths 123139, Active Cases 542346
1st November: New Cases 46441, New Deaths 493, Total Cases 8229322, Total Deaths 122642, Active Cases 563775
31st October: New Cases 46715, New Deaths 468, Total Cases 8136166, Total Deaths 122149, Active Cases 571529
30th October: New Cases 48120, New Deaths 550, Total Cases 813666, Total Deaths 121681, Active Cases 583574
29th October: New Cases 49281, New Deaths 568, Total Cases 8088046, Total Deaths 121131
28th October: New cases 49912, New Deaths 509, Total cases 8038765, Total Deaths 120563, Active Cases 603251
27th October: New Cases 42965, New deaths 519, Total Cases 7988853, Total Deaths 120054, Active Cases 611605
26th October: New Cases 36838, New deaths 505, Total Cases 7945888, Total Deaths 119535, Active Cases 627638
25th October: New Cases 45158, New Deaths 463, Total Cases 7909050, Total Deaths 119030, Active Cases 656026
24th October: New Cases 50224, New Deaths 575, Total Cases 7863892, Total Deaths 118567, Active Cases 7075723
23rd October: New Cases 54028, New Deaths 656, Total Cases 7813668, Total Deaths 117992, Active Cases 682107
22nd October: New Cases 54482, New Deaths 683, Total Cases 7759640, Total Deaths 117336, Active Cases 695979
21st October: New cases 56000, New Deaths 703, Total Cases 7705158, Total Deaths 116653, Active Cases 716610
20th October: New Cases 54422, New Deaths 714, Total Cases 7649158, Total Deaths 115950, Active Cases 740658
19th October: New Cases 46498, New Death 594, Total Cases 7594736, Total Deaths 115236, Active Cases 748883
18th October: New Cases 55511, New Deaths 578, Total Cases 7548238, Total Deaths 114642, Active Cases 773701
17th October: New Cases 62092, New deaths 1032, Total Cases 7492727, Total Deaths 114064, Active Cases 784264
16th October: New Cases 65126, New Deaths 886, Total Cases 7430635, Total Deaths 113032, Active Cases 795969
15th October: New Cases 60439, New Deaths 835, Total Cases 7365509, Total Deaths 112146, Active Cases 813303
14th October: New cases 67988, New Deaths 694, Total Cases 7305070, Total Deaths 111311
13th October: New cases 63517, New Deaths 723, Total Cases 7237082, Total Deaths 110617, Active Cases 827760
12th October: New Cases 54265, New Deaths 710, Total Cases 7173565, Total Deaths 109894, Active Cases 938879
11th October: New Cases 67757, New Deaths 813, Total Cases 7119300, Total Deaths 109184, Active Cases 868689
10th October New Cases 74535, New Deaths 921, Total Cases 7051543, Total Deaths 108371, Active Cases 868309
9th October: New Cases 73196, New Deaths 929, Total Cases 6977008, Total Deaths 107450, Active Cases 884053
8th October: New Cases 70824, New Deaths 967, Total Cases 6903812, Total Deaths 106521
7th October: New Cases 78809, New Deaths 963, Total Cases 6832988, Total Deaths 105554, Active Cases 902972
6th October: New Cases 72106, New Deaths 991, Total Cases 6754179, Total Deaths 104591, Active Cases 908335
5th October: New cases 59893, New Deaths 886, Total cases 6682073, Total Deaths 103600, Active Cases 919363
4th October: New cases 74767, New Deaths 902, Total Cases 6622180, Total Deaths 102714, Active cases 936013
3rd October: New Cases 75479, New Deaths 937, Total cases 6547413, Total Deaths 101812
2nd October: New cases 79974, New Deaths 1071, Total Cases 6471934, Total Deaths 100875
1st October: New Cases 81693, New Deaths 1096, Total Cases 6391960, Total Deaths 99804
30th September: New Cases 86748, New Deaths 1179, Total Cases 6310267, Total Deaths 98708
29th September: New cases 97529, New Deaths 1178, Total Cases 6223519, Total Deaths 97529
28th September: New cases 69671, New Deaths 777, Total Cases 6143019, Total Deaths 96351
27th September: New Cases 82767, New Deaths 1040, Total Cases 6073348, Total Deaths 95574
26th September: New cases 89010, New Deaths 1124, Total Cases 5990581, Total Deaths 94534
25th September: New cases 85468, New Deaths 1093, Total Cases 5901571, Total Deaths 93410
24th September: New Cases 85919, New Deaths 1144, Total cases 5816103, Total Deaths 92317
23rd September: New cases 89688, New Deaths 1152, Total Cases 5730184, Total Deaths 91173
22nd September: New cases 80391, New Deaths 1056, Total Cases 5640496, Total Deaths 90021
21st September: New Cases 74493, New Deaths 1056, Total Cases 5560105, Total Deaths 88965
20th September: New cases 87382, New deaths 1135, Total Cases 5485612, Total Deaths 87909
19th September: New cases 92755, New deaths 1149, Total cases 5398230, Total Deaths 86774
18th September: New cases 92789, New Deaths 122, Total Cases 5305475, Total Deaths 85625
17th September: New cases 96793, New Deaths 1174, Total cases 5212686, Total Deaths 84404
16th September: New cases 97859, New Deaths 1139, Total cases 5115893, Total Deaths 83230
15th September: New cases 91120, New Deaths 1283, Total Cases 5018-34, Total Deaths 82091
14th September: New cases 81911, New Deaths 1054, Total Cases 4926914, Total Deaths 80808
13th September: New cases 93215, New Deaths 1140, Total Cases 4845003, Total Deaths 79754
12th September: New cases 94409, New Deaths 1108, Total Cases 4751788, Total Deaths 78614
11th September: New cases 97654, New Deaths 1202, Total Cases 4657379, Total Deaths 77506
10th September: New cases 96760, New Deaths 1213, Total Cases 4559725, Total Deaths 76304
- Death rate is deaths today vs number of cases today.
- Corrected death rate is deaths today vs number of cases 14 days back.
- For one symptomatic test positive case, there are 10-30 asymptomatic cases and 20 untested cases.
- Estimated number of deaths = Reported deaths x 2.
- Number of deaths today should be 15% of the serious patients present 14 days back.
- Undocumented cases for each documented case – Iceland: 1: 2; Germany: 1: 5; New York City grocery store shoppers: 1: 10; California: 1.5%.
- Amongst active cases, 2.37% are serious, 1.82% need oxygen, and 0.41% need ventilator support.
DENSITY: India: In states with average population density of 1185/sq km, the average number of cases were 2048. On the contrary, in states with population density of 909/sq km, the number of cases were 56. When Chandigarh and Pondicherry were taken out from this group, the Average Density of other states were 217 and the average number of cases were 35. [HCFI]
COVID Sutra: COVID-19 pandemic is due to SARS 2 Beta-coronavirus (different from SARS 1 where spread was only in serious cases); with over eleven virus sequences floating; Causes Mild or Atypical Illness in 82%, Moderate to Severe Illness in 15%, Critical Illness in 3% and Death in 2.3% cases (15% of admitted serious cases, 71% with comorbidity< Male > Females); affects all but Predominantly Males (56%, 87% aged 30-79, 10% Aged < 20, 3% aged > 80); with Variable Incubation Period days (2-14; mean 5.2 days); Mean Time to Symptoms 5 days; Mean Time to Pneumonia 9 days, Mean Time to Death 14 days, Mean Time to CT changes 4 Days, Reproductive Number R0 1.5 to 3 (Flu 1.2 and SARS 2), Epidemic Doubling Time 7.5 days; Origin Possibly from Bats (Mammal); Spreads via Human to Human Transmission via Large and Small Droplets and Surface to Human Transmission via Viruses on Surfaces for up to three days. Enters through MM of eyes, nose or mouth and the spike protein gets attached to the ACE2 receptors. ACE2 receptors make a great target because they are found in organs throughout our bodies (heart muscle, CNS, kidneys, blood vessels, liver). Once the virus enters, it turns the cell into a factory, making millions of copies of itself, which are then breathed or coughed out and infect others.
The most important
- Masking is THE prevention
- RT PCR Ct is THE test for diagnosis
- Zinc is THE Vitamin
- Day 5 is THE day in COVID phase for mortality prevention
- Day 90 is THE day after which the word COVID ends
- Home Isolation is THE modality of Treatment
- 12 years is THE age when the mortality starts
- CRP is THE lab test for seriousness
- Loss of Smell is THE symptom equal to RT PCR test
- 15 minutes is THE time to get the infection.
Numbers to remember
- https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2770945: RDW at admission 14.5%
- Prevalence: New York: 13.9%; New York City at 21.2%; S Korea: 5.7%; World: 5%; Ohio prison: 73% of inmates; New York: 21% mortality [April 22 in JAMA].
- Viral particles are seen in tears, stool, kidneys, liver, pancreas, heart, semen, peritoneal fluid, CSF.
- Thrombosis: University of Pennsylvania has reported that clots are seen in patients even on blood thinners.
- Other human beta-coronaviruses have immunity lasting only for one year with no IMMUNITY PASSPORT.
- In absence of interventions, prolonged or intermittent social distancing (till 2022-24) is the key.
- Due to low levels of cross immunity from other beta-coronaviruses against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 may appear to fade away, only to show resurgence after a few years. Surveillance till 2024.
- During peak, trace and treat, and after the peak, trace and treat the close contacts.
- Increased spread: Close environment, crowded place with close physical contacts with no ventilation.
- Strategies: From community mitigation to individual containment; broader good over individual autonomy; perfect cannot be the enemy of the good; pandemics are fought on the grounds and not the hospitals. Treat the patient and not the test report; consider every surface and every asymptomatic person as virus carrier.
- HCW: Direct patient exposure time < 30 minutes; 7 days work and 7 days holidays.
- Italy: mortality reduced when they were short of ventilators.
- Hospital at HOME: CHF, mild pneumonia, exacerbations of asthma and COPD, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections.
- Great Imitator (protean manifestation).
- IgM can be false positive in pregnancy, immunological diseases; Pooled tests (<5, 20 Kerala, 64 Singapore RT PCR) when seroprevalence is <2%.
- Early treatment, day 3-5, to reduce the viral load and prevent cytokine storm using hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin or ivermectin with doxycycline with IV remdesivir and IV single dose tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor inhibitor) if very high D-dimer and IL-6; convalescent plasma therapy (given early; donor 14 days symptoms free, between day 28-40, single donation can help 4 patients), Lopinavir-ritonavir and Favipiravir if very low CD 4 counts.
- Hypoxia: Low flow oxygen <6l/mt, titrated to high flow oxygen using non rebreathing mask, Venturi mask, HFNC and helmet CPAP, NIV in supine or prone position.
- Early intubation with prone ventilation only if progressive. Hypoxia (walking dead) have capillary problem and not alveoli.
Formulas and Predictions
- The goal is to save lives. Monitoring deaths is important, especially when testing is limited.
- Daily deaths are the best indicator of the progression of the pandemic, although there is generally a 17- to 21-day lag between infection and deaths.
- Deaths in symptomatic cases: Less than one percent (best of the care).
- Therefore, Deaths X 100 = expected number of symptomatic cases
- Some may count “probable” or “presumptive” COVID-19 deaths when cases are not confirmed with a positive test but are based on symptoms and medical history. New York added 3,700 presumptive deaths in one day in April when testing was more limited.
- Case fatality rate: Number of total deaths as on date/number of total RTPCR positive cases as on today
- Infection fatality rate: Number of total deaths as on date/number of total calculated cases as on today
- Number of reported deaths: Number of confirmed deaths x 2
- The University of Washingtons Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME):
Is based on what is known about a disease and how peoples actions may affect that.
The latest forecasts state the U.S. will reach nearly 317,000 deaths by December 1, at the current rate of mask-wearing, which currently is slightly below 50% nationally and increasing mask wearing in public to 95% could save over 67,000 lives. Forecasts are not fixed but change depending on public behavior. When people learn that new cases are rising, they start wearing masks and using social distancing again; and when they realize that fresh cases are dropping, they tend to drop their guard. IHME makes use of real-time infection data from Johns Hopkins Universitys Coronavirus Resource Center to represent disease transmission and estimate how many Americans will die. The researchers then estimate how many Americans are wearing masks or using social distancing, which can modulate the final model.
The rate of infection in a population is based on the “R0,” or reproduction number. R0 represents the average number of people who will contract the infection from a single infected person, in a population thats never been witness to the disease before. If R0 is 3, it suggests that one case will create an average of three new cases. When that transmission rate of infection occurs at a specific time, its called an “effective R,” or “Rt.” R0 less than 1 means the epidemic is under control; and when its higher than 1, it is still spreading.
IHME found the “effective R over 1 in Oklahoma. In all other states the effective R is less than 1.”
- CDC: Relies on positive tests results. CDCs report these as confirmed cases. The positivity rate suggests how tough or easy it is to find a case, which is an indicator of both the spread of COVID-19 and how widespread testing is. If the rate of positive tests is 20%, one doesn’t have to look hard to find a case, compared to 1%, which means that one has to do a lot of tests to get a positive one. The more COVID-19 spreads, the higher the positivity rate. A 60% positivity rate may suggest that testing is only being done in a nursing home during an outbreak or a hospital where the most apparent cases are and not the general population where cases may be milder.
- Marylands COVID-19 dashboard: It reports the daily positivity percentage (percentage of positive tests and total testing volume since March). While looking at testing, one wants to know how many tests were done historically with the ability to compare and understand if the number has increased or declined or is stable and the percentage that comes back positive. Maryland and Pennsylvania report a 7-day rolling average of the daily positivity percentages. The 7-day average rate smooths out fluctuations during the week and is better indicates a trend as compared to daily numbers.
- The testing numbers often fluctuate, depending on where testing is done and when the labs report test results. A sudden surge in testing numbers may point to a large number of tests done in a group setting such as a nursing home or prison on a single day. Laboratories and hospitals report test results on weekdays, so the numbers can decline on weekends.
- A major goal during the coronavirus epidemic has been to flatten the curve to maintain local hospital capacity. After expected COVID-19 surges, many hospitals limited surgeries and admissions to preserve their resources, including hospital beds, ventilators, and healthcare personnel.
- If hospital capacity reaches 80%, we may have to stop admitting patients to prevent the hospital from being overwhelmed.
- In order to plan for surges and increase capacity: It is required to know the number of people who tested positive and were admitted to the hospital with symptoms of COVID-19.
- Pennsylvanias COVID-19 dashboard: has a hospital preparedness page that shows the number of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the number and percentage of available beds by unit, including intensive care, medical/surgical, and airborne isolation.
- Pennsylvania: Reports the number of ventilators COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients use every day.
- Illinois lists the recovery rate: In Illinois, the recovery rate of 95% is calculated as recovered cases divided by recovered cases plus confirmed deaths. This indicates the quality of medical care and the severity of disease.
- Cases will double after the average doubling time of the country at that time
- Cases expected in the community:
Get number of deaths occurring in a five-day period
Estimate the number of infections required to generate these deaths based on the country or area case fatality rate
Compare that to the number of new cases actually detected in the five-day period.
This can then give us an estimate of the total number of cases, confirmed and unconfirmed
- Lock down effect: Reduction in cases after average incubation period (5 days)
- Lock down effect in reduction in deaths: Reduction in number of deaths on day 14 (average time to death of that country)
- Requirement of ventilators on day 9: 1-3% of number of new cases detected
- Requirement of future oxygen on day seven: 10% of total cases detected today
- Number of people which can be managed at home care: 90% of number of cases today
- Requirement of ventilators: 1-3% of number of cases admitted 7-9 days back
- Requirement of oxygen beds today: 10% of total cases admitted seven days back
- Number of unreported or untested cases: Number of reported cases x 10-30 (depending on the country, New York 10, Delhi 23.8, Pakistan 30)
- Number of asymptomatic cases: For 6 symptomatic cases, 200 asymptomatic cases (1.78 M tests in Hong Kong, 32 asymptomatic cases, 10 symptomatic cases)
- India 700 MPS, 30 positive
- Oxygen requirement on that day in the hospital at 6am: Number of cases detected to have hypoxia on six minutes walk test.
Dr KK Aggarwal
President CMAAO, HCFI and Past National President IMA
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