Government to launch National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis
The Prime Minister of India will launch the National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis on Wednesday, 11th September in Mathura. He will also launch National Artificial Insemination Programme during the event.
The program aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.
CMAAO, the Confederation of Medical Associations in Asia and Oceania also launched its theme for the year 2019-20 at the recently concluded 34th General Assembly in Goa, which is “One Health: Path to Wellness”.
One health also includes animal health besides plant, environment and human health under one roof.
Foot and mouth disease
- Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease and affects cows, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other animals with divided hooves.
- It is caused by an aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae
- The virus is found in living tissue and in the breath, saliva, urine, and other excretions of infected animals.
- FMD is not readily transmissible to humans and is not a public health risk.
- FMD is of concern as it is a transboundary animal disease (highly contagious epidemic disease that can spread extremely rapidly, irrespective of national borders).
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease). However, the two diseases are caused by different viruses and are not related. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease (CDC)
- Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted to humans by contact with fluids from infected animals (sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, or other animals) or derived food products such as unpasteurized milk and cheese.
- Brucella melitensis is the species that causes most of the infections in humans. Brucella abortus, Brucella suis and Brucella canis also have potential to cause human infections. Brucella spp are small gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli lacking a capsule.
- Brucella organisms can survive for weeks in the environment. They are sensitive to heat, most commonly used disinfectants and pasteurization
- Brucellosis occurs worldwide; major endemic areas include countries of the Mediterranean basin, Persian Gulf, Middle East, Central Asia, China, the Indian subcontinent, sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America.
- Domestic animal hosts can harbor a variety of different Brucella species: B. abortus in cattle, B. melitensis in sheep, goats, and camels and B. suis in swine.
- Humans can acquire brucellosis via direct inoculation through cuts and skin abrasions, direct conjunctival inoculation, inhalation of infectious aerosols, or ingestion of contaminated food.